Concealing Coloration in Animals
Judy Diamond, Alan B. Bond
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The biological functions of coloration in animals are sometimes surprising. Color can attract mates, intimidate enemies, and distract predators. But color patterns can also conceal animals from detection. Concealing coloration is unusual because it is an adaptation not only to the visual features of the environment but also to the perceptual and cognitive capabilities of other organisms. Judy Diamond and Alan Bond bring to light the many factors at work in the evolution of concealing coloration.
Animals that resemble twigs, tree bark, stones, and seaweed may appear to be perfect imitations, but no concealment strategy is without flaws. Amid the clutter of the natural world, predators search for minute, telltale clues that will reveal the identity of their prey. Predators have remarkable abilities to learn to discriminate the fake from the real. But prey have their own range of defensive tactics, evolving multiple appearances or the ability to change color at will. Drawing on modern experimental evidence of the functional significance of animal color strategies, Diamond and Bond offer striking illustrations of how the evolution of features in one organism can be driven by the psychology of others.
Concealing Coloration in Animals takes readers on a scientific adventure that explores creatures inside mats of floating seaweed, mice and lizards on desert rocks and sand, and rare parrots in the rainforest of New Zealand. Color photographs extensively document the mind-boggling array of deceptive strategies animals use to blend in, mislead, or vanish from view.
Fruit flies. Other genes determine how the command to build an eye will play out in any given case, making single-lens eyes in vertebrates or compound eyes in flies. But high-level developmental control produces photoreceptors that always use the machinery of retinal and opsins. A lot of the basic molecular equipment for vision is part of the biological legacy of all animals.2 Within each major group of animals, the sensitivity of the eye and the range of wavelengths it responds to have been.
Light (which also turns on both cone types). This will be true even if the red-green object absorbs all the actual 580 nm light that falls on it, so that no light from the yellow part of the spectrum is reflected at all. This is the principle used in color monitors and digital cameras, which emulate a range of natural colors by mixing graded intensities of just three specific wavelengths of red, green, and blue light. A picture of a banana on a computer screen may look yellow to our eyes, but its.
Differences across the gradient from white to dark and related them to her measure of gene flow. To determine levels of isolation between white sand and dark soil populations of the lizards, she sequenced the mitochondrial ND4 gene and associated tRNAs. Gene flow for the three different lizard species occurred at different rates. Earless lizards were more sedentary, showing the lowest rate of gene flow, fence lizards showed an intermediate rate, and whiptail genes traveled freely across the.
Fell back on an inventive form of individual adaptation. He suggested that all animals might have the color sensitivity of chameleons, at least early in their lives. Somehow the colors perceived by the retina were adopted during development by the organism and were transmitted through “fibers” to the skin, where they were incorporated into hair or feathers. Erasmus admitted, however, that he could not see how his mechanism could possibly work: “The final cause of these colours is easily.
Enhances their concealment, and highly camouflaged species commonly move more slowly and flush less readily when approached. Finally, the color LIMITS TO INVISIBILIT Y 171 strategy has to be considered in the context of the life history of the animal. How does it vary with food availability or predation or conflicting selective influences? Concealing coloration is a phenomenon of great richness, and it invites a convergence of disciplines ranging from population ecology and animal.